Neck Rein: Using pressure on the horse's neck (and using leg pressure) to rein the horse.
Friesian: Originating in Friesland as a horse for riding and war.
The following article was written by Wendi Porter. The original can be found HERE.
For many horse lovers, the appearance of a Friesian stallion named Goliath in the movie Ladyhawke, with Rutger Hauer, was an eye opener. Before then, they were a little know carriage breed from the Netherlands. Othello (his real name) thundered into our hearts as the romantic companion of star crossed lovers, and for many of us, there he stayed. Othello was an experienced actor, having come from the circus onto the silver screen. He was the son of Ritske 202. And while he is no longer with us in body, his spirit will continue on in his many children.
History is a finicky thing. It is hard to pin down facts, and even harder to find something in writing. This is exceptionally true of the Friesian horse, also spelled in historical texts as Frisian. Horses in history were rarely categorized by breed, but rather by where they were bred and by whom. In the case of Friesians, they come from the country called Friesland. A large territory currently found in the Netherlands, on the beaches of the N orth Sea. The people of Friesland are a strong and hardy stock that ruled the Friesian sea (now known as the North Sea) before the Viking took to the waters (FHANA). They were well known for their farming, their horses and their seamanship.
The mounted warriors of Friesland were famous, in the Roman army, until the Roman tax increases forced the Frisan people to rebel in 28 AD. The resulting battle at Baduhennawood, would remind the Roman’s why they had recruited the Frisian people in the first place. The Roman army was entirely wiped out (FHANA).
In the 5th century AD there was a treatise on equine medicine, in which the Friesian was specifically noted. Vegetius wrote, “Thirdly we should mention the Frisians, who are no less speedy and arduous” (YouTube.com). Finding a written passage one the Friesian horse specifically is hard enough, but to be found so amazing that they were considered in the top three breeds of horses in the known world is phenomenal. The top two were the Thuringian and Burgundian horses (YouTube.com).
As the Friesian horse move forward through history it continued to be used as a war horse, finding it’s self in a type of renaissance. Every noble and general wanted the elegant and mild mannered animal as their companion on the battle field. Their personality making them amazingly suitable for the chaos of war and politics.
“The Emperor Charles (reigned 1516 -56) continued Spanish expansion into the Netherlands, which had its Frisian warhorse, noted by Vegetius and used on the continent and in Britain in Roman times. Like the Andalusian, the Frisian bred true to type. Even with infusions of Spanish blood during the sixteenth century, it retained its indigenous characteristics, taking the best from both breeds” (Hyland).
It’s popularity increased as a riding horse and even as “the first breed of trotter to be found in Europe”, due to it’s unusually high knee action. As the Orlov trotter and American trotters arrived in Europe, the Friesian slowly waned in popularity, in favor of the faster horses. As an interesting side note, the The Orlov trotter’s progenitor was Bars 1, and his mother was a Friesian (YouTube.com).
As the nobles moved towards preferring warmbloods and crossbreds as the main horse for leisure, the popularity of the Friesian dropped to almost none. The pedigree for the Friesian horse was founded in 1879 in order to preserve the breed, and by 1913 there were only three stallions in the studbook. The people of Friesland came to the rescue and started a huge initiative to save the breed (YouTube.com). The breed type became more used in farming and less in riding. By the 1950’s the horses were in danger yet again, due to the use of tractors. The breed stepped up and once again became a riding animal.
If you look back through the pictures of studs in the stud book you can see the changes in anatomy as the horses went through the various transitions. Movement, versus strength, short necks versus long etc… today you will find two distinct types of Friesians in the registry (three if you count the trotters), You will find what is known as a more Baroque style, which is a throwback to their carriage and farm work and the Sport predicate, which is closer to the warmblood dressage horses found today.
Friesians have gained in popularity since the 1980’s and we are finally at a point where the coefficient is balancing out as a safe levels, thanks to hard working people dedicated to preserving history of this black warhorse. The Fenway Foundation is a not for profit corporation made up of researchers and equine specialists that focus on educating breeders and aficionados, to ensure a safe and healthy future for the offspring of these majestic creatures (Foundation). So long as there are breeders and lovers of the Friesian, we will be touched by their loving and gentle natures for a long time to come. Having made the jump from borderline extinction to the silver screen, Friesians have captured our hearts and our imaginations.
FHANA. FHANA.com. 01 01 2015. 22 07 2015 <http://www.fhana.com/history/>.
Foundation, Fenway. Fenway Foundation.com. 01 01 2011. 22 07 2015 <http://www.fenwayfoundation.com/about_us.html>.
Hyland, Ann. The Warhorse 1250-1600. UK: Sutton Publishing, 1998.
The Beautiful Friesian Horse Part 1. Perf. YouTube.com. Paul J Brennan, 2013.
Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 01 01 2015. 22 07 2015 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friesian_horse#cite_note-8>.
Some horses will develop a habit of eating manure. There are several common reasons this occurs.
Foals eating Manure:
In foals one week to several months of age, eating manure is a way for them to jump-start the good bacteria in their digestive tract. As long as it doesn't become a long-term habit, there isn't any reason to discourage coprophagy in foals.
Mature horses will sometimes develop coprophagy out of sheer boredom. Just as some horses crib, some weave, others pace... Horses can develop the habit of eating manure in their stall, or even out in the pasture, when they become bored. This behavior may not be detrimental to the horse, but you can talk with your veterinarian about checking for other causes for the behavior, and what can be done to stop it.
Some horses will begin eating manure because their diet is lacking. If this is the case, it's important to pin-point what it is your equine is missing, and solve the issue. Proper nutrition is key to keeping your horse healthy.
If an equine is hungry, not starving or neglected, just currently having an empty stomach, they may develop a short-term habit of eating manure to temporarily ease their hunger. Keeping some form of roughage (hay, pasture, etc.) in front of your horse should stop this habit in it's tracks.
*If your horse is eating manure, contact your veterinarian to definitively find the cause of the behavior.
Timor Pony: A rare breed of Indonesian pony
The Timor pony is a rather short, stout breed of pony. They generally stand between 10 and 12 hands. The breed originated in Indonesia, although they were imported to Australia in the 19th century. Their import allowed for the breed to hav significant influence on the breeding and molding of Australian stock.
The Timor Pony was thought to have been used as a circus pony in the 1950's.
The Australian Pony Stud Book registry standards for the Timor pony can be found HERE.
Merrylegs: A grey pony in "Black Beauty"
Merrylegs is a pony mentioned in Black Beauty (an 1877 novel by Anna Sewell). The pony is well liked by both the humans and the animals in the story. The pony is, in the story, sold to a Vicar who promises never to sell Merrylegs.
Florida Cracker Horse: A breed of horse that can be traced to Florida in the 1500's
The Florida Cracker Horse originated in Spain, but was brought over to Florida in the 1500's to be used as a cow horse. When the Spanish discovered Florida, they originally flooded the agriculture industry in the area with cattle and ranching. This little, gaited horse, was used for ranching, as the gait and size made the horse comfortable for riding over long distances.
The Spanish inevitably left horses behind, and the breed continued to evolve as a wild species. Today there are only 800 Florida Cracker Horses registered with the FCHA (website HERE), a registry that was founded in 1989.
Sidesaddle: A saddle that allows the rider to sit aside the horse.
When using a sidesaddle, the rider sits with both legs to the same side of the equine, as opposed to the typical saddle which facilitates sitting astride (with one leg on each side of) the horse.
Nightshade: A plant that, when ingested, is toxic and potentially lethal to equines.
Horses will generally avoid plants they shouldn't eat. But occasionally horses will unintentionally ingest a plant they shouldn't eat, such as Nightshade. If you suspect your equine has ingested something they shouldn't have it is extremely important to seek emergency veterinarian assistance. Time is of the essence.
Symptoms of Nightshade toxicity include:
Muscle weakness/ tremors
Lack of interest in food
Neostigmine can counteract the effects of Nightshade, if the ingestion is caught early enough. In most cases supportive therapy, such as IV fluids are also required. Many horses recover from Nightshade poisoning, some however, do not.
Nail: The hardware used to affix conventional horseshoes.
When a shoe is nailed onto a horse's foot, the nail enters through the bottom of the horse's foot, and protrudes through the bottom third of the hoof wall on the outside of the hoof. When done correctly, the nail is set through the hoof where the horse cannot feel the nails.
Elbow: The joint at which the horse's front leg meets his belly.
This joint is also called the Cubital Joint.
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