1. A horse’s temperature should be:
2. What three things can affect a horse’s temperature?
ii. Ambient Conditions
iii. Just got done exercising
3. If your horse has a fever, and you can’t get their temperature down, what should you do?
Call a vet
MONITORING HEART RATE
1. When someone uses the term “resting heart rate”, what are they talking about?
The speed of your heart beats, when you are relaxing.
2. What should a horse’s resting heart rate be?
30-40 beats per minute
3. What might cause a horse’s resting heart rate to be elevated?
Pain and Colic
4. How do you check a horse’s pulse rate?
Feel along the inside of the jaw bone approximately where the throat latch of a halter would be. Place your thumb against the outside of it's cheek, to steady your hand and roll your fingers along the side of his jaw bone, feeling for a very flexible, tube-like structure. That is the salivary duct. Once you have found it, ease up on the pressure.
5. What instrument is used to listen for a horse’s heart rate?
6. After activity, how long should it take for a horse’s heart rate to drop back to normal?
1. What does “respiratory rate” mean?
The number of breaths per minute.
2. What is the normal respiratory rate for a horse?
8-20 breaths per minute. But if the horse has just worked out, his/ her breathing will be faster. In 20 min. it should go back to normal.
3. How do you measure a horse’s respiratory rate?
Standing by the horse's head looking down the flank. Focus on the area behind where your leg rests in English and where your back cinch would be in Western tack.
CHECKING MUCOUS MEMBRANES
1. What are mucous membranes?
A tissue that secretes mucous that lines many body cavities.
2. What color should a horse’s gums be?
Salmony pink to very pale, peachy pink.
3. What does it mean if a horse’s gums are very light in color?
Circulation is compromised.
4. What does it mean if a horse’s mucous membranes are very dark red in color?
Dehydration, endotoxemia, or plant poisoning.
5. What does the term “capillary refill” refer to?
To press your finger on the horse's gum, and count how long it takes to refill in color.
ADMINISTERING ORAL MEDICATIONS
1. Define the word “oral”:
A word for mouth. Oral medication means medication that you give your horse through the mouth.
2. Explain how to give a horse medications orally:
Start by crushing the medications. Mix the ground medication with a small amount of a delivery substance. Then suck all the contents into a catheter-tip syringe. Slide your thumb into his mouth at the bars. When he opens his mouth quickly put the syringe into his mouth and squirt the contents back and over his tongue.
APPLYING MEDICATION TO EYES
1. Describe one method of applying medication to a horse’s eye:
Stand next to the horse, facing the eye that needs to be medicated. Hold the ointment tube in one hand and slip the other underneath the halter. Place the index finger of that same hand in the crease of the horse's upper lid. Place your thumb below his lower lashes. Press inward very slightly, and pull the eyelids apart. It will create a trough on the lower lid where you can squeeze the prescribed amount. Alternatively, place the amount on your fingertip and swipe it into the trough formed by the lower lid.
1. Why might you need to apply or change a bandage?
Because if you leave the wound open it could get infected. And if you don't change the bandage, the old cotton, dirt, and blood could cause an infection.
2. What supplies might be needed to bandage a leg wound?
ii. cotton wraps
iii. self-adhesive wrap
iv. non-stick gauze pads
IF YOUR HORSE IS SICK OR INJURED, WHAT IS THE FIRST THING YOU SHOULD DO??
Call the vet
Melinda Freckleton, DVM. "Veterinary Skills Every Horse Owner Needs." Equus (2015): 54-60.